Archive for 29 julio 2011

En el último libro de Richard Rumelt se habla con contundecia de las confusiones existentes en cuanto a lo que es una estrategia empresarial:

The Jack Welch quote about “reaching for what appears to be the impossible” is fairly standard motivational fare, available from literally hundreds of motivational speakers, books, calendars, memo pads, and Web sites. This fascination with positive thinking has helped inspire ideas about charismatic leadership and the power of a shared vision, reducing them to something of a formula. The general outline goes like this: the transformational leader (1) develops or has a vision, (2) inspires people to sacrifice (change) for the good of the organization, and (3) empowers people to accomplish the vision. By the early 2000s, the juxtaposition of vision-led leadership and strategy work had produced a template-style system of strategic planning. (Type “vision mission strategy” into a search engine and you’ll find thousands of examples of this kind of template for sale and in use.)

The template looks like this: The Vision. Fill in your vision of what the school/business/nation will be like in the future. Currently popular visions are to be the best or the leading or the best known. TheMission. Fill in a high-sounding, politically correct statement of the purpose of the school/business/nation. Innovation, human progress, and sustainable solutions are popular elements of a mission statement. The Values. Fill in a statement that describes the company’s values. Make sure they are noncontroversial. Key words include “integrity,”“respect,” and “excellence.” The Strategies. Fill in some aspirations/goals but call them strategies. For example, “to invest in a portfolio of performance businesses that create value for our shareholders and growth for our customers.” This template-style planning has been enthusiastically adopted by corporations, school boards, university presidents, and government agencies. Scan through such documents and you will find pious statements of the obvious presented as if they were decisive insights.

The enormous problem all this creates is that someone who actually wishes to conceive and implement an effective strategy is surrounded by empty rhetoric and bad examples.

Despite the roar of voices equating strategy with ambition, leadership,vision, or planning, strategy is none of these. Rather, it is coherent action backed by an argument. And the core of the strategist’s work is always the same: discover the crucial factors in a situation and design a way to coordinate and focus actions to deal with them.

 Good and bad strategy.

Let me close by trying to give you a leg up in crafting good strategies, which have a basic underlying structure:

1. A diagnosis: an explanation of the nature of the challenge. A good diagnosis simplifies the often overwhelming complexity of reality by identifying certain aspects of the situation as being the critical ones.

2. A guiding policy: an overall approach chosen to cope with or overcome the obstacles identified in the diagnosis.

3. Coherent actions: steps that are coordinated with one another to support the accomplishment of the guiding policy.

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En una entrevista reciente de McKinsey al CEO de Google (Eric Schmidt), comenta lo siguiente:
Hiring and recruiting:
One of the things about companies is, as you build them, you get a chance to sort of
determine the culture, the people, the style. And one of the things that I learned—and I
learned a lot from Larry and Sergey—is that it makes an enormous difference who you hire
at every level. And people don’t really sort of manage that. So we worked very, very hard
on who’s going to be in our company.
And we spent more time, and pretty ruthlessly, on academic qualifications, intelligence,
intellectual flexibility, passion and commitment. What bothers me about management books
is they all say this stuff generically, but nobody does it. You need to develop a culture where
people actually are going to do what they’re going to do, and you’re trying to assist them.
They don’t need me. They’re going to do it anyway, because they’re driven; they have that
passion. They’re going to do it for their whole lives. It’s everything they ever wanted. And,
oh yeah, maybe they could use a little help from me.
That’s the kind of person that you want. At Google, we give the impression of not managing
the company because we don’t, really. It sort of has its own “Borg-like” quality, if you will—
it just sort of moves forward. So you have the problem of, once you get started and get the 3
right seating of people, you’re going to get this kind of behavior. Then you have to deal with
the odd people. Because not every one of these incredibly smart people is a team player,
and so forth.
So I would suggest that as part of the recruiting, you need to look at whether they’re sort
of compatible with the other people. Benchmark [Capital] is a company in [Silicon] Valley
which has been a very successful venture company, and they had a rule that they would
hire people if when they walked down the hall and they looked in the room, people smiled
at them. They wanted them around. And we don’t have that rule.
Because we basically want people—even if you don’t want them around, we still need them.
But you have to sort of figure the interpersonal stuff out. If you have a meeting, and you
have consensus without disagreement, you have nothing. So basically what I would do in
a meeting is I would see if everyone agreed, and then I would try to get some controversy.
And if you can get one person to say something, then the person who’s shy, or a little
concerned about saying it, will speak up. Then you have a real conversation. So you need a
certain amount of discord in your meetings. If you just have discord, well, then you have a
university, right?
So what you want to do is you need a deadline. So discord plus deadline. Who enforces
the deadline? Me. That’s my job. Or whoever’s running the meeting. So if you have discord
and deadline, then you’re likely to produce a consensus. And if you look at the academic
literature, and all of the surveys and so forth, this is going to produce, on average, the best
sort of business judgment kind of outcomes. And I think that’s roughly right.
We use 70–20–10: 70 percent on our core business, 20 percent on adjacent business, 10
percent on others, as a sort of allocation principle, and we are constantly moving people
around to achieve that percentage. Another thing we have is something called 20 percent
time, where we tell people, especially in engineering, that they can spend 20 percent of
their time on whatever they want. Now, these people are not that clever. They work on
things which are adjacent to their areas of interest, which is what we hired them for.
They’re not off doing opera. Unless it’s the browser, right? So the 20 percent time is a very
good recruiting tool, but more importantly it serves as a pressure valve against managers
who are obnoxious. So the way it works is, if you’re my manager and you say, “Eric, you
know, we’re on deadline, we’ve got a problem,” and so forth. I’ll look at you, and I’ll say,
“I’m going to give you 100 percent of my 80 percent of my time.”
It serves as a check-and-balance. And in practice that conversation doesn’t occur, because
it doesn’t need to occur. There are many, many other examples. When you’re doing
recruiting, make sure that you don’t allow managers to hire their friends. Make sure you
have a recruiting team, like universities do—a hiring committee.
We would allow people to have an arbitrary number of interviews. It got to the point where
people were being interviewed 15, 16, 17 times, and then we were turning them down.
So eventually, by fiat, I ordered that it be taken down to 8. And we’ve since statistically
modeled that you can get a probabilistically correct outcome at 5 interviews. So if five
people interview a person, you should be able to make a decision whether you’re going to
hire them.

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Cómo redactar el CV

La escuela de negocios IESE publica las siguientes recomendaciones a la hora de redactar el CV:
  • El curriculum recomendado es de una página y contiene información personal, educación, experiencia profesional, idiomas hablados e información de carácter general (aficiones e intereses).
  • Utiliza cursiva para poner de relieve o enfatizar el texto.
  • Utiliza guiones (bullets) para focalizar la atención en los puntos clave.
  • Redacta párrafos breves.
  • Sé consistente utilizando las mayúsculas y minúsculas.
  • Utiliza años para indicar los periodos de tus experiencias previas (ej.: 1999-2003).
  • Utiliza frases con verbos de acción.
Guía de contenidos:
  • Lista tu experiencia y formación en cronología inversa. Empieza con lo que estás haciendo en la actualidad y ves hacia atrás en el tiempo.
  • Habilidades, experiencias y rasgos personales que supongan una ventaja competitiva con respecto a los otros candidatos.
  • Enfatiza cuáles son tus logros profesionales hasta la fecha y centra el impacto de tus contribuciones. Cuando describas experiencias, no sólo resumas tus responsabilidades y proyectos terminados. Indica que éxitos y beneficios has logrado. Cuantifica los resultados siempre que sea posible: incremento en ventas, reducción de costes, mejora de volumen, aumento de calidad, beneficio y productividad de equipo.
  • Matiza resultados cuando sea posible (ejemplos: mejorado, racionalizado, renovado).
  • Demuestra tu crecimiento personal. Ej.: honores académicos, cargos electos.
  • Idiomas. (Este es un punto muy importante).
  • Información general opcional. Esta sección muestra al lector como eres como persona, proporcionando el equilibrio con tu vida profesional. Señala cuáles son tus intereses, hobbies y aspectos de tu formación personal que se centren en ti como individuo. Resume tus actividades extracurriculares, incluyendo cargos de liderazgo que hayas asumido. No pases por alto la importancia de estas actividades.
  • Céntrate tanto en el futuro como en el pasado. Escribe un curriculum que refleje dónde vas, no sólo lo que has hecho. Piensa seriamente cuáles son las necesidades del contratante y cuáles son tus habilidades y experiencias, de modo que puedas presentar tu perfil de la manera más adecuada.
  • No olvides las diferencias culturales, regionales y nacionales y adapta tu curriculum de acuerdo a ello. Los americanos no incluyen datos personales en el curriculum, solo el nombre y dirección, pero en Europa, los datos personales son obligatorios. Se puede incluir una fotografía.

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